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2 edition of Oxygen transfer reactions in microbiological and chemical systems. found in the catalog.

Oxygen transfer reactions in microbiological and chemical systems.

Christopher George Watson

Oxygen transfer reactions in microbiological and chemical systems.

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Published .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (Ph. D.)--The Queens" University of Belfast, 1972.

The Physical Object
Pagination1 v
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL21529921M

  In wastewater treatment plants, nitrifying systems are usually operated with elevated levels of aeration to avoid nitrification failures. This approach contributes significantly to operational costs and the carbon footprint of nitrifying wastewater treatment processes. In this study, we tested the effect of aeration rate on nitrification by correlating ammonia oxidation Cited by: Oxidation reactions just involve a transfer of electrons, the only reason it's called oxidation is because oxygen is commonly used in those reactions. There are lots of reduction and oxidation. There are insufficient data for the development of process design criteria for constructed wetlands systems based on submerged plants as a major treatment agent. The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxygen transfer capacity (OTC) of E. densa, in relation to wet plants’ mass (w.m.), and the influence of E. densa on the oxygen concentration and contaminants’ removal Cited by: 1. This is done by scavenging oxygen or free radicals which minimize browning reactions or lipid oxidation. In particular, sodium metabisulphite is commonly used to help retard the non-enzymatic browning of coconut milk. Microbiology of coconut milk. Like coconut water, coconut milk is also prone to microbiological damage.


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Oxygen transfer reactions in microbiological and chemical systems. by Christopher George Watson Download PDF EPUB FB2

Oxygen transfer reactions in microbiological and chemical systems Author: Watson, Christopher George. Oxygen transfer in fermentation systems—I. Use of gluconic acid fermentation for determination of instantaneous oxygen transfer rates.

Journal of Biochemical and Microbiological Technology and Engineering2 (2), DOI: /jbmte John Frederick by: Some general comments about gas exchange and diffusion will be made, followed by a description of how oxygen is carried in the blood.

The binding of oxygen to hemoglobin will be discussed, including the oxygen saturation (or dissociation) curve and factors (allosteric effectors) which cause it to shift.

Next, a discussion of the effects of carbon monoxide on oxygen. The oxygen requirement of plant cells is quite low compared to microorganisms. Kato et al. () [22] have examined the effect of k L a on biomass production (Fig.

a).They observed that the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, k L a was constant after 10 h and the final biomass concentration became constant at g cell dry weight/g sucrose. When k L a. In the light-independent reaction s, the chemical energy produced by the light-dependent reactions is used to drive the assembly of sugar molecules using CO 2; however, these reactions are still light dependent because the products of the light-dependent reactions necessary for driving them are short-lived.

The light-dependent reactions produce. Metabolism refers to all the biochemical reactions that occur in a cell or organism. The study of bacterial metabolism focuses on the chemical diversity of substrate oxidations and dissimilation reactions (reactions by which substrate molecules are broken down), which normally function in bacteria to generate energy.

Also within the scope of bacterial metabolism is the study of the. Microaerophiles need oxygen to grow, albeit at a lower concentration than 21% oxygen in air. Optimum oxygen concentration for an organism is the oxygen level that promotes the fastest growth rate. The minimum permissive oxygen concentration and the maximum permissive oxygen concentration are, respectively, the lowest and the highest oxygen.

Cellular respiration begins when electrons are transferred from NADH and FADH 2 —made in glycolysis, the transition reaction, and the Krebs cycle—through a series of chemical reactions to a final inorganic electron acceptor (either oxygen in aerobic respiration or non-oxygen inorganic molecules in anaerobic respiration).

These electron. Introduction. Aerobic composting, which is the decomposition of manure or other organic materials in the presence of oxygen, is one of the waste activated sludge treatment processes (Diaz et al.,Polprasert,Rantala et al.,Metcalf and Eddy Inc., ).Since composting is an inexpensive, simple and environmentally sound process for waste disposal, Cited by: Feedback inhibition stops the cell from making more substance than it needs and thereby wasting chemical resources.

In some metabolic reactions, several steps are required for the synthesis of a particular chemical compound, called the _____. Before attempting to understand shelf-life of foods, it is important to realize that foods are diverse, complex and active systems in which microbiological, enzymatic and physicochemical reactions.

Volume 2 (Basic principles of wastewater treatment) is also introductory, but at a higher level of detailing. The core of this book is the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment.

The major topics cov-ered are: microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment; reaction kinetics. • There are different types of aeration systems, but subsurface or diffused aeration systems are most common, especially for large plants in urban areas • For these types of aeration systems, it is common to define the oxygen transfer efficiency, expressed as a percent, as follows: 2,in 2,out 2,in (O O) OTE O Where O.

2, in. and O. 2,outFile Size: 2MB. Glycolysis does not require oxygen and can occur under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. However, during aerobic respiration, the two reduced NADH molecules transfer protons and electrons to the electron transport chain to generate additional ATPs by way of oxidative phosphorylation.

Glycolysis also produces a number of key precursor metabolites. Chemical reactions often involve changes in energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds. Reactions in which energy is released are exothermic reactions, while those that take in heat energy are endothermic.

Key Terms. endothermic: A description of a chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy from its surroundings. The sum of all of the chemical reactions in an organism. Give an example of a decomposition reaction that involves breaking the bonds of a water molecule. Compare exchange reactions to synthesis and decomposition reactions.

Chapter 1 Batch and Continuous Cultures Batch culture There are a number of biochemical processes that involve batch culture/growth of cell. This type of culture requires enough nutrient to maintain the Size: KB. Read this article to learn about Volumetric Oxygen Transfer Coefficient (KLa).

Since it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to measure K L. And the amount of bubble transfer area in a bioreactor or fermenter, an engineering parameter known as volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, expressed by K L a, has been used to represent volumetric oxygen transfer. An Overview of Fermenter and the Design Considerations to Enhance Its Productivity Hitesh Jagani*, Karteek Hebbar, Sagar S.

Gang, P. Vasanth Raj, Raghu upstream leading to the reactions that occur within the bioreactor or fermenter, despite the microbiology, genetics, chemical and bioprocess engineering and even a scatter of.

Microbiology for Allied Health Students: Lab Manual This lab manual was created to support a microbiology course for allied health students.

While many traditional lab manuals are lengthy and comprehensive, descriptions of the labs in this manual are kept minimal to encourage students to further research the procedures and results on their own. A plausible explanation is the presence of more oxygen under aerobic conditions may have diversified electron transfer processes and benefited to the appearance of diverse bacteria with a.

This chapter elucidates the technologies of biological and chemical wastewater treatment processes. The presented biological wastewater treatment processes include: (1) bioremediation of wastewater that includes aerobic treatment (oxidation ponds, aeration lagoons, aerobic bioreactors, activated sludge, percolating or trickling filters, biological filters, rotating biological Cited by: Volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (K L a) serves as a determinant of aeration efficiency of a bioreactor.

Maintenance of uniform K L a throughout the liquid is most important in aerobic submerged fermentation. In fact K L a is influenced by several factors as described in the following sections. Broth viscosity. Factors Affecting Oxygen Transfer in Fermenters. Measuring Dissolved Oxygen Concentration.

Estimating Oxygen Solubility. Mass Transfer Correlations for Oxygen Transfer. Measurement of kLa. Measurement of the Specific Oxygen Uptake Rate, qO.

Practical Aspects of Oxygen Transfer in Large Fermenters. The main purpose of a stirring system is the oxygen supply to keep the cell respiratory activity. Thus, the point is to transfer the oxygen from the gas phase to the liquid phase and let the dissolved oxygen reach the suspended cells, penetrating into the cells and, finally, being consumed in the reaction.

The mechanism of oxygen transfer from Cited by: The term used to describe all of the chemical reactions inside a cell is metabolism ().Cellular processes such as the building or breaking down of complex molecules occur through series of stepwise, interconnected chemical reactions called metabolic pathway s.

Reactions that are spontaneous and release energy are exergonic reaction s, whereas endergonic reaction s. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen. Examples include peroxides, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, and alpha-oxygen.

The reduction of molecular oxygen (O 2) produces superoxide (• O − 2), which is the precursor of most other reactive oxygen species. O 2 + e − → • O − 2. Dismutation of superoxide. Although there are many possible biochemical reactions, they fall into only a few types to consider: Oxidation and reduction: For example, the interconversion of an alcohol and an aldehyde.

Movement of functional groups within or between molecules For example, the transfer of phosphate groups from one oxygen to another.; Addition and removal of water: For. ORA, Version DATE: t U ha ni t t e ar d e S n t ot specifically addressed in the microbi serve as a at te e c s h P ni ha cal rm r a e c f o er p e e n.

Bioremediation is a process used to treat contaminated media, including water, soil and subsurface material, by altering environmental conditions to stimulate growth of microorganisms and degrade the target pollutants. In many cases, bioremediation is less expensive and more sustainable than other remediation alternatives.

Biological treatment is a similar approach. UNESCO – EOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY – Vol. II – Chemistry of Wastewater - Timothy G. Ellis ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) composition of wastewater includes CFU coliform organisms, CFU fecal streptococci, protozoan cysts, and virus particles.

This chapterFile Size: KB. In this chapter 15 Equilibrium Systems chapter Equilibrium Systems Equilibrium in Chemical Systems The simplest equilibrium systems are static: Nothing is moving or changing to create the balance.

A textbook sitting on a level desktop is an example ofstatic stays motionless because two equal and opposite forces act on it simultaneously.

This chain catalyzes a series of chemical reactions, where each component of the chain is successively reduced, then oxidized, finally being donated to a terminal inorganic electron acceptor.

This electron acceptor is either oxygen in aerobic respiration or, in anaerobic bacteria and archaea, some other inorganic molecule (Figure ).Author: Wendy Keenleyside. @article{osti_, title = {Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption}, author = {Yamada, Y and Kawase, Y}, abstractNote = {In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge.

4Al + 3O 2 → 2Al 2 O 3. With oxidation numbers inserted as superscripts, this reaction is written. to show that both elements change oxidation numbers. Because the oxidation numbers changed, an oxidation‐reduction reaction is defined as one in which electrons are transferred between atoms.

In the example, each oxygen atom has gained two electrons, and each aluminum has. "These reactions release energy from food substances and make it available so that the cells" of the organisms can function (World Book,Cellular Respiration).

It is possible for cells to obtain energy without oxygen, by the chemical process of glycolysis, which is the converting of molecules of glucose (simple sugars) into smaller. The level of oxygen absorption beyond which the respiratory quotient exceeded unity was used as a measure of limiting oxygen supply.

Addition of three types of antifoam compounds to T. utilis fermentations resulted in a marked depression of oxygen consumption, and a.

In most chemical reactions, molecular oxygen is reduced along the red and blue pathways highlighted in this redox scheme. of oxygen to water in such biological systems is crucial, not only in. Oxygen transfer in fermentation Oxygen transfer in fermentation Tsao, George T.; Lee, Douglas D.

GEORGE 1 TSAO and DOUGLAS D. LEE. The rate of biological processes in aerobic fermentation and waste water treatment is often limited by the rate of dissolution of oxygen from air bubbles into the liquid. Organic Redox Reactions. Electron transfer is usually difficult to see in the organic reactant(s) and product(s) in an organic redox reaction.

For example the conversion of a 2° alcohol to a ketone (Figure ) is oxidation, but it is not obvious that electron transfer has occurred by looking at the alcohol and ketone structures. Figure File Size: 4MB. There are three basic methods for preparing oxygen: chemical, electrolytic (electrolysis of water), and physical (separation of air).

The chemical method was discovered first. Oxygen may be prepared, for example, from potassium chlorate, KClO 3, which decomposes on heating with evolution of O 2 in amounts of m 3 per 1 kg of the.Redox (reduction–oxidation, pronunciation: / ˈ r ɛ d ɒ k s / redoks or / ˈ r iː d ɒ k s / reedoks) is a type of chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

Redox reactions are characterized by the actual or formal transfer of electrons between chemical species, most often with one species (the reducing agent) undergoing oxidation (losing electrons) while.Oxidation-reduction reaction, any chemical reaction in which the oxidation number of a participating chemical species changes.

The term covers a large and diverse body of processes. Many oxidation-reduction reactions are as common and familiar as fire, the rusting and dissolution of metals, the.